ASTM D1414 Standard Test Methods for Rubber O-Rings

ASTM D1414 testing

ASTM D1414 specifies the procedures for determining the physical properties of o-rings. O-rings are typically made of elastomeric material and are used to seal connections in pipes, tubes, etc. This testing standard is commonly used in the safety-critical aerospace, automotive, and consumer products industries.

Materials Testing System

Though system capacity will depend on the strength of the elastomer, most tests to this standard will fall in the low-force range, making this application perfect for a single column frame such as Instron's 68SC or 34SC. The standard specifies a fixture consisting of two spools to hold an o-ring while under test. Instron’s 2717 Series elastomeric o-ring test fixtures were designed to accurately meet the requirements, and conveniently avoid the need for lubricants or external power motors. Designed for testing elastomeric materials in the form of rings, these fixtures avoid local stress concentrations by using a lower spindle that is rotated by a toothed belt driven from the moving crosshead. The upper spindle rotates freely, and the rotation frequency of the lower spindle is easily selected by moving the toothed belt from one pulley to another. When testing straight specimens or single strands, pneumatic side action grips with serrated or rubber coated faces are the preferred gripping configuration. The constant gripping force prevents specimen slippage while under test.

ASTM D1414 Test Setup
1) 6800 Series Universal Testing System
2) Bluehill Universal Software
3) 2580 Series Load Cell
4) 2717 Series O-Ring Fixture


ASTM D1414 system setup
Testing Tips and Tricks
  • Due to the geometry of o-rings and the unique fixture needed to test them, standard stress (F/A) and strain calculations (∆L/Lo) do not apply. Consideration needs to be made for the fixture geometry (spool separation and diameter) as well as specimen geometry.
  • Bluehill Universal is provided with one free application module upon purchase. Each module contains pre-configured test methods and supporting documentation to assist with testing to various standards, including ASTM D1414, which is part of the Elastomers module.
  • The Expression Builder within Bluehill Universal software allows for custom calculations and results in order to adhere to the standard.
  • To review the test methods in full, purchase ASTM D1414.
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